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How did Japanese words enter the English language?

Oxford English Dictionary editor, John Simpson, explains how Japanese words entered English in three distinct historical phases.

Some commonly used English words of Japanese origin

Business/Politicstycoon, Shogun, mikado

Weather: typhoon, tsunami

Religion: Zen, Shinto 

Clothing: kimono, obi

Food: sushi, satsuma, miso, tempura, saki

Art/Culture/Design: bonsai, anime, origami, karaoke, haiku, manga, karate, judo, aikido, jujutsu, futon

Origin: 布団 (futon)
First known use: 1876
There is a more extensive list here, though this includes specialist words not commonly used by English speakers.

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